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// Copyright 2017 The Abseil Authors.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// File: casts.h
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This header file defines casting templates to fit use cases not covered by
// the standard casts provided in the C++ standard. As with all cast operations,
// use these with caution and only if alternatives do not exist.
#include <cstring>
#include <memory>
#include <type_traits>
#include <utility>
#if defined(__cpp_lib_bit_cast) && __cpp_lib_bit_cast >= 201806L
#include <bit> // For std::bit_cast.
#endif // defined(__cpp_lib_bit_cast) && __cpp_lib_bit_cast >= 201806L
#include "absl/base/internal/identity.h"
#include "absl/base/macros.h"
#include "absl/meta/type_traits.h"
namespace absl {
// implicit_cast()
// Performs an implicit conversion between types following the language
// rules for implicit conversion; if an implicit conversion is otherwise
// allowed by the language in the given context, this function performs such an
// implicit conversion.
// Example:
// // If the context allows implicit conversion:
// From from;
// To to = from;
// // Such code can be replaced by:
// implicit_cast<To>(from);
// An `implicit_cast()` may also be used to annotate numeric type conversions
// that, although safe, may produce compiler warnings (such as `long` to `int`).
// Additionally, an `implicit_cast()` is also useful within return statements to
// indicate a specific implicit conversion is being undertaken.
// Example:
// return implicit_cast<double>(size_in_bytes) / capacity_;
// Annotating code with `implicit_cast()` allows you to explicitly select
// particular overloads and template instantiations, while providing a safer
// cast than `reinterpret_cast()` or `static_cast()`.
// Additionally, an `implicit_cast()` can be used to allow upcasting within a
// type hierarchy where incorrect use of `static_cast()` could accidentally
// allow downcasting.
// Finally, an `implicit_cast()` can be used to perform implicit conversions
// from unrelated types that otherwise couldn't be implicitly cast directly;
// C++ will normally only implicitly cast "one step" in such conversions.
// That is, if C is a type which can be implicitly converted to B, with B being
// a type that can be implicitly converted to A, an `implicit_cast()` can be
// used to convert C to B (which the compiler can then implicitly convert to A
// using language rules).
// Example:
// // Assume an object C is convertible to B, which is implicitly convertible
// // to A
// A a = implicit_cast<B>(C);
// Such implicit cast chaining may be useful within template logic.
template <typename To>
constexpr To implicit_cast(typename absl::internal::identity_t<To> to) {
return to;
// bit_cast()
// Creates a value of the new type `Dest` whose representation is the same as
// that of the argument, which is of (deduced) type `Source` (a "bitwise cast";
// every bit in the value representation of the result is equal to the
// corresponding bit in the object representation of the source). Source and
// destination types must be of the same size, and both types must be trivially
// copyable.
// As with most casts, use with caution. A `bit_cast()` might be needed when you
// need to treat a value as the value of some other type, for example, to access
// the individual bits of an object which are not normally accessible through
// the object's type, such as for working with the binary representation of a
// floating point value:
// float f = 3.14159265358979;
// int i = bit_cast<int>(f);
// // i = 0x40490fdb
// Reinterpreting and accessing a value directly as a different type (as shown
// below) usually results in undefined behavior.
// Example:
// // WRONG
// float f = 3.14159265358979;
// int i = reinterpret_cast<int&>(f); // Wrong
// int j = *reinterpret_cast<int*>(&f); // Equally wrong
// int k = *bit_cast<int*>(&f); // Equally wrong
// Reinterpret-casting results in undefined behavior according to the ISO C++
// specification, section [basic.lval]. Roughly, this section says: if an object
// in memory has one type, and a program accesses it with a different type, the
// result is undefined behavior for most "different type".
// Using bit_cast on a pointer and then dereferencing it is no better than using
// reinterpret_cast. You should only use bit_cast on the value itself.
// Such casting results in type punning: holding an object in memory of one type
// and reading its bits back using a different type. A `bit_cast()` avoids this
// issue by copying the object representation to a new value, which avoids
// introducing this undefined behavior (since the original value is never
// accessed in the wrong way).
// The requirements of `absl::bit_cast` are more strict than that of
// `std::bit_cast` unless compiler support is available. Specifically, without
// compiler support, this implementation also requires `Dest` to be
// default-constructible. In C++20, `absl::bit_cast` is replaced by
// `std::bit_cast`.
#if defined(__cpp_lib_bit_cast) && __cpp_lib_bit_cast >= 201806L
using std::bit_cast;
#else // defined(__cpp_lib_bit_cast) && __cpp_lib_bit_cast >= 201806L
template <typename Dest, typename Source,
typename std::enable_if<
sizeof(Dest) == sizeof(Source) &&
type_traits_internal::is_trivially_copyable<Source>::value &&
#if !ABSL_HAVE_BUILTIN(__builtin_bit_cast)
&& std::is_default_constructible<Dest>::value
#endif // !ABSL_HAVE_BUILTIN(__builtin_bit_cast)
int>::type = 0>
#if ABSL_HAVE_BUILTIN(__builtin_bit_cast)
inline constexpr Dest bit_cast(const Source& source) {
return __builtin_bit_cast(Dest, source);
#else // ABSL_HAVE_BUILTIN(__builtin_bit_cast)
inline Dest bit_cast(const Source& source) {
Dest dest;
static_cast<const void*>(std::addressof(source)), sizeof(dest));
return dest;
#endif // ABSL_HAVE_BUILTIN(__builtin_bit_cast)
#endif // defined(__cpp_lib_bit_cast) && __cpp_lib_bit_cast >= 201806L
} // namespace absl
#endif // ABSL_BASE_CASTS_H_